• Programming in the high-level languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN, C, etc. is known as procedure-oriented programming.
  • Procedure-oriented programming basically contains group of instructions known as function. There are multiple functions into the program.
  • In below figure we have divided our program into multiple functions.
  • We use flowchart or algorithm to show how the program is executed from one instruction to other instruction.
  • It doesn’t emphasize on the data.

POP StrucutreRelation between function, global data variable, and local data variable

  • In a multi-function program we use global variable to communicate between two functions.
  • Global variable can be use by any function at any time while local variables are only used within the function.
  • But it creates problem in large program because we can’t determine which global variables (data) are used by which function.
  • Also global variables are accessed by all the function so any function can change its value at any time so all the function will be affected.

Characteristics of procedure-oriented programming language:

  1. It emphasis on algorithm (doing this ).
  2. Large programs are divided into smaller programs known as functions.
  3. Function can communicate by global variable.
  4. Data move freely from one function to another function.
  5. Functions change the value of data at any time from any place. (Functions transform data from one form to another.)
  6. It uses top-down programming approach.