• The following program demonstrates how 2D-array can be used as a function argument.
  • The below program performs basic matrix operations such as matrix addition, multiplication, transpose of a matrix etc.
/* Program to perform operations like addition, multiplicaton, etc. on matrix using function with 2D-array. */

#include "stdio.h" 
#include "conio.h"

#define MAX 3            // constant variable declaration

void create ( int [3][3] ) ;    // 2D-array as argument
void display ( int [3][3] ) ;
void matadd ( int [3][3], int [3][3], int [3][3] ) ;
void matmul ( int [3][3], int [3][3], int [3][3] ) ;
void transpose ( int [3][3], int [3][3] ) ;

void main( )
{
	int mat1[3][3], mat2[3][3], mat3[3][3], mat4[3][3], mat5[3][3] ;

	clrscr () ;

	printf ( "Enter first Matrix :\n\n" ) ;
	create ( mat1 ) ;

	printf ( "Enter elements second Matrix:\n\n" ) ;
	create ( mat2 ) ;

	printf ( "First Matrix:\n" ) ;
	display ( mat1 ) ;
	printf ( "Second Matrix:\n" ) ;
	display ( mat2 ) ;

	matadd ( mat1, mat2, mat3 ) ;
	printf ( "After Addition:\n" ) ;
	display ( mat3 ) ;

	matmul ( mat1, mat2, mat4 ) ;
	printf ( "After Multiplication:\n" ) ;
	display ( mat4 ) ;

	transpose ( mat1, mat5 ) ;
	printf ( "Transpose of first matrix:\n" ) ;
	display ( mat5 ) ;

	getch() ;
}

/* creates matrix mat */

void create ( int mat[3][3] )
{
	int i, j ;

	for ( i = 0 ; i < MAX ; i++ )
	{
		for ( j = 0 ; j < MAX ; j++ )
		{
			printf ( "Enter the element: " ) ;
			scanf ( "%d", &mat[i][j] ) ;
		}
	}
	printf ( "\n" ) ;
}

/* displays the contents of matrix */

void display ( int mat[3][3] )
{
	int i, j ;

	for ( i = 0 ; i < MAX ; i++ )
	{
		for ( j = 0 ; j < MAX ; j++ )
			printf ( "%d\t", mat[i][j] ) ;
		printf ( "\n" ) ;
	}
}

/* adds two matrices m1 and m2 */

void matadd ( int m1[3][3], int m2[3][3], int m3[3][3] )
{
	int i, j ;

	for ( i = 0 ; i < MAX ; i++ )
	{
		for ( j = 0 ; j < MAX ; j++ )
			m3[i][j] = m1[i][j] + m2[i][j] ;
	}
}

/* multiplies two matrices m1 and m2 */

void matmul ( int m1[3][3], int m2[3][3], int m3[3][3] )
{
	int i, j, k ;
	for ( k = 0 ; k < MAX ; k++ )
	{
		for ( i = 0 ; i < MAX ; i++ )
		{
			m3[k][i] = 0 ;
			for ( j = 0 ; j < MAX ; j++ )
				m3[k][i] += m1[k][j] * m2[j][i] ;
		}
	}
}

/* obtains transpose of matrix m1 */
void transpose ( int m1[3][3], int m2[3][3] )
{
	int i, j ;

	for ( i = 0 ; i < MAX ; i++ )
	{
		for ( j = 0 ; j < MAX ; j++ )
			m2[i][j] = m1[j][i] ;
	}
}

Note: While passing a two dimension array into the function we have specified set of two square braces at function declaration and function definition.

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